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Provincia di Pesaro e Urbino
Sito in fase di aggiornamento a seguito del riordino delle Province (L. 56/14 e L.R. Marche 13/15)

Cagli

A charming town, rich in monuments, alongside the ancient Flaminian Way (47 km from the sea), standing at the foot of Monte Petrano (1163 m), where the mountain torrent of the Bosso joins the Burano.
In ancient times it was called Cale. During the Byzantine period (6th Century) it was one of the strongholds (together with Gubbio, Urbino, Fossombrone and Jesi) which formed the Inland or Mountain Pentapolis. Its origins, however, are much earlier, as numerous archaeological discoveries have shown. These include a well-known series of bronzes from the Italo-Etruscan period (4th Century BC) found in a pagan sanctuary, among which was a bronze head known as the "Testa di Cagli". Cagli was listed among the towns which Pepin the Short gave to the Church of Rome in the Deed of Donation of 756. The same town was partially destroyed by a fire started by Ghibelline factions in 1287 to save it from the Guelphs. Under the protection of Pope Nicholas IV, the town was moved down from the slopes of Monte Petrano and rebuilt on the plain below, enclosing the religious buildings and houses of the borgo which already existed there. In the 12th century it became an independent municipality and embarked upon an aggressive policy which led to it taking possession of over fifty castles and driving out the rural nobility as well as coming into conflict with the abbots of the powerful abbeys in the surrounding area. Finally, however, it was incorporated within the lands of the Duke of Urbino. It was Duke Federico da Montefeltro who commissioned Francesco di Giorgio Martini in 1481 to build the imposing Fortress on the Colle dei Cappuccini which has now unfortunately disappeared, except for a few ruins. This was linked by an underground passageway to the impressive elliptical Torrione below it, which still survives and now houses the recently established Contemporary Sculpture Centre. The medieval Palazzo Pubblico (which today houses the Town Hall and the Archaeological Museum) was also converted during the Montefeltro period into a residence for the Duke, and a whole series of other ancient buildings were also similarly rebuilt. The churches of San Francesco and San Domenico survive from the Medieval period. The interiors of each of them are in the form of a single hall, decorated with paintings and frescoes. Other churches worthy of mention are the Cathedral (almost entirely rebuilt in the 18th Century), Sant'Angelo Minore, San Pietro, Santa Maria della Misericordia, San Giuseppe, Santa Chiara, San Filippo and San Bartolomeo, all of which are richly decorated with works of art, including several paintings by the noted Cagli artist Gaetano Lapis (1706-1773). The many civic buildings worthy of mention include the 15th century Palazzo Preziosi-Brancaleoni and the 16th Century Palazzo Tiranni-Castracane as well as the 19th Century Teatro Comunale, with its richly frescoed interior laid out with tiers of boxes. One of the Roman monuments of great importance is the Ponte Mallio crossing the River Bosso. Its central span and buttresses are built with vast blocks of stone and date back to the period of the Roman Republic. In the surrounding district is the interesting sanctuary of Santa Maria delle Stelle at Monte Martello. Built in 1475, it encloses a pre-existing chapel decorated with 14th Century frescoes.
Another nearby village worth visiting is Pianello, at the foot of Monte Nerone (1525 m) where the mountain torrents of the Certano, Giordano and Fiumicello merge to form the Bosso. A rare variety of landscapes and natural phenomena (caves, gorges and fossils) blend with the moors and beech woods of Serre di Burano.

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